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Lesson 8b - Principles of Training

Factors Influencing Training Potential

  • Somatotype
  • Gender - men are potentially stronger than women, women are potentially more flexible than men.
  • Current fitness level
  • Lifestyle, including diet, smoking, occupation, current activity levels, pregnancy, general health etc
  • Age

Principles of Training

  • Specificity
  • Adaptation - body adapts to regular training with improved heart function and circulation, improved respiratory function, improved muscular strength and endurance and improved flexibility.
  • Overload - perform at a level above normal, by increasing frequency, duration or intensity of exercise.
  • Reversibility - fitness decreases if training stops. Strength gains are generally lost more quickly than flexibility gains.
  • Progression - necessary for fitness gains, applying the principals of FITT


  • Frequency - how often - increased at fitness progresses
  • Intensity - how hard - increased by:
    • Increasing or decreasing speed, depending upon exercise
    • Adding impact
    • Larger movements, higher arms
    • Use of longer levers
    • Working against gravity
    • Increasing resistance
  • Time - how long
  • Type

Lever Length & Gravity

Gravity can provide built in resistance.

Long levers are arms and legs fully extended, with the fulcrum being shoulders and hips. Combine short and long levers for a safer workout.